What is it?
In flipped classroom, students learn new content online, and discussions and projects take place in the classroom. This moves away from the traditional method of instruction, where new concepts are taught in class, and students take homework home to complete on their own.
The flipped classroom method transforms instructor-centered teaching to student-centered learning. Students are no longer passive listeners in class (Davies, Dean, & Ball, 2013), but active learners who participate in and take charge of their own learning.
The flipped classroom aims to free up classroom time by providing instructional content in the form of videos for students to watch as homework. Classroom time is then used for active learning, where the teacher facilitates activities for students to deepen their understanding (Roehl, Reddy, & Shannon, 2013).
Bergmann and Sams (2012) described the flipped classroom as being composed of two distinct phases.
Phase 1: Pre-class learning
Students learn new content by viewing lectures and materials before class. Materials are usually delivered online, such as online video lectures, podcasts, or readings.
Phase 2: In-class learning
Students engage in active learning activities in class, like interactive lectures, discussions, problem solving, laboratory experiments, and role play.
Flipped classroom has gained interest as educators move away from the traditional method of teaching. As flipped classroom is a type of blended learning, use of technology is a key component. The effectiveness of digital learning has led to an increase in these new modes of teaching. Further, the many benefits of flipped learning is recognized, as we will be elaborating further in the article.
Who is it for?
The flipped classroom approach works for diverse age groups, from young children to adult learners.
For younger students, where giving them online homework may not be suitable - a ‘faux flipped classroom’ method can be used. This means that videos are shown to students in class, allowing them to watch it at their own pace, and the teacher can move around to offer individual support (Panopto, 2020).
For older students, such as those in high school, a standard flipped classroom method can be used. Students will be tasked to review video lectures and materials prior to the lesson. In class, students can immediately apply what they have learnt, through group work and discussions. Teachers’ time will be freed up to answer questions and facilitate learning.
For higher learning and adult learners, a virtual flipped classroom method can be used. All materials and assignments are shared to students online, via learning management systems, and students complete assignments on their own (Panopto, 2020). Learning is very much self directed, and students could schedule one-on-one consultations with the teacher where needed.
For students, the flipped classroom provides an interactive atmosphere, allowing them to improve their communication and collaboration skills (Strayer 2012). Hands-on activities in the flipped classroom also improves students’ problem solving and application skills (Zappe et al. 2009). It can even foster higher order thinking (Hung, 2015).
Flipped learning encourages students to take a more active role in the learning process before and during class time (Jungić, Kaur, Mulholland, & Xin, 2015). It allows students to learn at their own pace and be responsible for their own learning (Lai & Hwang, 2016). It can even increase students’ motivation and satisfaction with their learning (Hernandez Nanclares & Perez Rodriguez, 2016).
Studies show that students have positive views towards flipped classroom. Students in flipped classrooms like the use of video and feel that inversion is a better use of class time (Mason, Shuman, & Cook, 2013). They prefer the active approach to learning and feel that having more in-class activities helps with learning content (Phillips and Trainor 2014).
For instructors, flipped classroom provides an opportunity for differentiated teaching for a range of students’ abilities (Herreid & Schiller, 2013). Instructors are better able to cater to different needs and learning speeds of students.
The flipped classroom approach frees up classroom time for in-depth discussions, questions, and personal feedback (Wanner & Palmer, 2015). Additionally, the time freed up can allow teachers to observe students better, understand them, and provide more personalized coaching.
In summary, the flipped classroom approach offers many benefits and is definitely worth considering as an instructional tool. It is also part of the wider umbrella of blended learning. Read more about blended learning here: https://blog.soqqle.com/blended-learning/
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. USA: International Society for Technology in Education.
Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research & Development, 61(4), 563–580.
Hernández Nanclares, N., & Pérez Rodríguez, M. (2016). Students’ satisfaction with a blended instructional design: The Potential of “Flipped classroom” in higher education. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2016(1). doi:10.5334/jime.397
Herreid, C. F., & Schiller, N. A. (2013). Case studies and the flipped classroom. Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(5), 62 66.
Hung, H.T. (2015). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81–96. doi:10.1080/09588221.2014.967701
Jungić, V., Kaur, H., Mulholland, J., & Xin, C. (2015). On Flipping the classroom in large first year calculus courses. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 46(4), 508 520.
Lai, C. L., & Hwang, G. J. (2016). A Self regulated flipped classroom approach to improving students’ learning performance in a mathematics course. Computers & Education, 100, 126 140.
Mason, G., Shuman, T.R., & Cook, K.E. (2013). Inverting (flipping) classrooms—advantages and challenges. Paper presented at the 120th ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Atlanta, GA.
Panopto, (2020). 7 Unique Flipped Classroom Examples: Which Approach Is Best for You? Retrieved June 19, 2020, from https://www.panopto.com/blog/7-unique-flipped-classroom-models-right/
Phillips, C.R., & Trainor, J.E. (2014). Millenial students and the flipped classroom. Paper presented at ASBBS 21st Annual Conference, February 20–23, Las Vegas, USA.
Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L., & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The Flipped classroom: An Opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 44 49.
Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15(2), 171–193.
Wanner, T., & Palmer, E. (2015). Personalising learning: Exploring student and teacher perceptions about flexible learning and assessment in a flipped university course. Computers & Education, 88, 354–369. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.07.008.
Zappe, S., Messner, J., Litzinger, T., & Lee, H. W. (2009). ‘‘Flipping’’ the classroom to explore active learning in a large undergraduate course. In Paper presented at the American society for engineering education annual conference and exhibition, Austin, TX.